Cunnison, Ian George
Introduction
Ian George Cunnison
Introduction by Professor I. Cunnison
Arrangement

Catalogue
1. Photographs
(a) Nomadic Movements
(b) Camps
(c) Tents
(d) Cattle
(e) Grazing & watering
(f) Cultivation
(g) Markets
(h) People
(i) Horses
(j) Giraffe hunt
(k) Drumming and dancing
(l) The end of a blood feud
(m) Contacts with other groups
(n) Miscellaneous short sequences
2. Official Papers
3. Map
4. Printed material
Reference code: GB-0033-SAD
Title: Cunnison, Ian George
Dates of creation: 1933-1971
Extent: 1 box
Held by: Durham University Library, Archives and Special Collections
Created by: Cunnison, Ian George
Language: English

Ian George Cunnison

(13 February 1923 - 16 June 2013)

1948-1951 Anthropological research in N. Rhodesia (Zambia), Luapula Valley
1952-1955 Anthropological research among the Baqqarah
1955-1959 Lecturer, Manchester University
1959-1965 Head of the Social Anthropology Department, Khartoum University
1962-1966 Editor Sudan Notes and Records
1966-1989 Professor of Social Anthropology, Hull University


Introduction by Professor I. Cunnison

The photographs date from the years 1952-4. In the captions the present tense refers to that period. They were taken in the course of anthropological work with the Humr. They are not intended as a comprehensive record of Humr life; photography was secondary to the research, and snaps were taken simply when it was convenient. The research itself was written up in a book, Baggara Arabs (Clarendon Press, 1966), and various journal articles listed in it.


At the time, there was no railway in Dar Humr and the town of Babanusa did not exist. Motor transport from the north was possible all the year as far as Muglad but roads further south were impassable in the rains. The period was the end of the Condominium. In 1954 S.W. Kordofan's first Sudanese District Commissioner took office at El Fula.
The base from which research was carried out was the camp of Hurgas Merida, omda of the Mezaghna. Unless otherwise mentioned, the photographs are of people, places and livestock connected with his camp (ferig) and with his five-generational patrilineal family (surra), which was known as Iyal Ganis.
Photographs of the Messiriyyah Humr of S.W. Kordofan
The Humr are pastoralists who move around their territory after suitable water and grazing. The main ecological zones mentioned in the captions are, from north to south:-
the Babanusa, used for rains grazing
the Muglad, used for grazing and cultivation
the Goz, used for transit to the Bahr and for grazing at harvest time
the Bahr, used for grazing in the dry season after harvest

The seasons are as follows:-
shita` "winter" cold, dry (December-February)
seyf "summer" hot, dry (February-April)
rushash "spring" first rains (April-June)
kharif "rains" most rain (July-September)
chelawy "autumn" late rains (September-October)
deret "harvest" getting cold (October-December)

Arrangement

1. Photographs of the Messiriyyah Humr of S.W. Kordofan
(a) Nomadic movements
(b) Camps
(c) Tents
(d) Cattle
(e) Grazing and watering
(f) Cultivation
(g) Markets
(h) People
(i) Horses
(j) Giraffe hunt
(k) Drumming and dancing
(l) The end of a blood feud
(m) Contacts with other groups
(n) Miscellaneous short sequences
2. Official Papers
3. Map
4. Printed Material

Accession details

Presented by Professor Cunnison, 1989 & 1991

Catalogue
1. Photographs
(a) Nomadic Movements
SAD.750/1/1-65
There are four main annual migrations:
Woty, from the Muglad to the Bahr, December
Munshagh, from the Bahr to the Muglad, June
Tal`y, from the Muglad to the Babanusa, July
Kabby, from the Babanusa to the Muglad, September
Shorter moves are also made within these areas
SAD.750/1/1
Dismantling harvest camp in the Muglad, preparing loads for the migration (mesar)
SAD.750/1/2
Mesarna `izz al-Ataya (the Humr belong to the `Ataya branch of Juheyna)
SAD.750/1/3-11
The woty migration takes place well into the dry season, and caravans move in a cloud of dust
SAD.750/1/12
Woty caravan passing remains of a cattle camp in the Goz
SAD.750/1/13-17
The woty migration is done quickly with the certainty of finding water on the Bahr, and only rough shelters are erected at night stops
SAD.750/1/18-19
Caravan crosses the first watercourse (regeba) on the Bahr after passing through the dry sandy wooded Goz
SAD.750/1/20-21
Moving camp within the Bahr area. The dalil on horseback leads the cattle.
SAD.750/1/22-24
Moving between camp sites along a regeba
SAD.750/1/25-27
Members of Dar Hantor lineage of the Mezaghna moving camp on the Bahr
SAD.750/1/28
Sheybun Merida and nephew reaching Seidana, a frequent camp site for Iyal Ganis in summer
SAD.750/1/29-38
The munshagh back from the Bahr to the Muglad is a leisurely journey. Scouts first go ahead to see if rain has filled the pools further north. Short new grass, dust laid.
SAD.750/1/39-44
A late munshagh by people who had stayed behind at Seidana to plant cotton
SAD.750/1/45-46
Bull fallen in mud, shedding part of its load
SAD.750/1/47
Bull loaded up for moving camp - including camp's drum. Kireyfan Jedid
SAD.750/1/48-53
Laden bulls decorated with braided leather
SAD.750/1/54-57
Laden undecorated bulls
SAD.750/1/58-59
Tor umm iyal, dolul o sheyyal : a placid baggage bull, fit for carrying infants
SAD.750/1/60
Fine horse, fine horseman, fine spear. Ashemmo at Umm Kanashy.
SAD.750/1/61
A small travelling party loading
SAD.750/1/62
Girls on mare
SAD.750/1/63-64
Donkey with donkey up
SAD.750/1/65
Horse, donkey, bull, dogs, chickens
(b) Camps
SAD.750/1/66-158
A camp, ferig, usually takes the form of a ring of tents with doors facing inwards. The cattle spend the night inside the ring, and there is rope or a thorn enclosure for calves. A camp is sited near a convenient shade tree, the shejerat el-juma`, where men spend time during the day, and where bachelors sleep. The group, known as surra, of men closely related through their fathers, can be the basis for a camp, but it often splits up for practical or social reasons; and at any time for convenience the cattle can go with the unmarried (the `azzaba) leaving the others behind with tents and baggage (the tegeliya).
SAD.750/1/66-74
Rainy season camp in the Babanusa
SAD.750/1/75-88
Late rains camp in the Babanusa
SAD.750/1/89-90
Cattle camp in the Goz, November. During harvest cattle are kept out of the way, and are taken by the `azzaba to the pools at the northern part of the Goz. Only rough tents are erected.
SAD.750/1/91-96
Harvest camp (mudmar) beside a harvested millet field in the Muglad. Often camps at this season are small, to be convenient for gardens.
SAD.750/1/97-98
Mudmar of Shaikh Kubr Menawwir near Menagir (Dar Umm Sheiba Zerga section of Awlad Kamil)
SAD.750/1/99-100
Cattle of Iyal Jabir (Mezaghna) in camp at Goleh Karamalla, at northern edge of the Bahr, January
SAD.750/1/101-105
Summer camp at Umm Dululu
SAD.750/1/106
A camp at Umm Sha`raya (Fayyarin)
SAD.750/1/107
A camp at Koya (Ziyud)
SAD.750/1/108-109
Camp of Iyal Kabberat (Ziyud) at Umm Ganzus. Tents are, unusually, in a straight line along the bank of the Regeba. February
SAD.750/1/110
Ziyud and A. Serur camps together at Umm Ganzus
SAD.750/1/111-114
Summer camps in the Bahr
SAD.750/1/115-21
Summer camps in open parkland at Lau
SAD.750/1/122
Camp at Lau with Dinka houses in the background
SAD.750/1/123
Camp at Lau: men's tree
SAD.750/1/124-126
Camps of A. Kamil omodiya at Aman, with pools in regeba drying out. March
SAD.750/1/127
Camp in early rains. First move north from regeba to take advantage of small clay depressions in the Goz (kelage) which hold water after the first showers.
SAD.750/1/128-129
Camps in the Goz on the munshagh migration. Tents are properly constructed against the rain, and in view of the slow pace of the move.
SAD.750/1/130-131
Small camp beside gardens at sowing time, at Gideyhat in the Muglad. Cattle are away elsewhere.
SAD.750/1/132-137
Camps in the Babanusa, early rains
SAD.750/1/138
Camp in Babanusa with drying meat, following slaughter of a bull calf
SAD.750/1/139
Camp at Nayinayi in the Firshai, incorporating a Dinka house. The Barokela, whose camp it is, are a lineage of A. Kamil specialising in iron work.
SAD.750/1/140-141
Tents of the Salamat omodiya are often oval rather than round. Summer camp at Lake Keylak.
SAD.750/1/142
Tents on the Bahr in early rains are sometimes strongly protected with thatched roofs and bark sides reaching the ground
SAD.750/1/143
Salamat cotton camp, L. Keylak, February
SAD.750/1/144-145
Cotton camp at Raggl in the Firshai (identity unknown)
SAD.750/1/146-147
Cotton camp at Seidana where all Iyal Ganis cotton cultivation was carried out. Commonly referred to as hilla, village, rather than ferig
SAD.750/1/148-149
Summer camp with servant quarters behind ring of tents
SAD.750/1/150
The village at Gideyhat where the melekiya (former slaves) of Iyal Ganis reside permanently as cultivators
SAD.750/1/151-158
Men's tree at various camps of Iyal Ganis
(c) Tents
SAD.750/1/159-182
Materials for tents are carried on bull backs from one camp site to the next, although the framework may be left behind and fresh sticks cut at the new place. Tents vary in design according to season and personal preference; they consist basically of a beehive shaped framework covered by broad strips of shredded bark, and sometimes straw, which are in turn covered by mats tied down with ropes. A small grass shelter (rakuba) may be erected near the door as a separate kitchen, otherwise cooking is in the open or in the front of the tent. A woman obtains tent and household goods (together called el-khumam) on her first marriage, and they remain hers. Wife, husband, daughters, and younger sons sleep in tents. Unmarried men sleep at the tree, but each is attached to the household of his nearest female relative, on whom he relies for meals and where he can pull in his angereyb on rainy nights. Moving, women ride on bulls with the household goods.
SAD.750/1/159
First steps in erecting a tent (beyt). A split-cane bed (diringil) on tripods; bark (tash) and mats (burush) laid out for roof and sides.
SAD.750/1/160
Half-dismantled tent seen from rakuba. Angereyb, cooking pots, containers, mortar, hearth stones.
SAD.750/1/161-162
Tent complete apart from roof coverings, from rear. Woman's goods are supported to the left of the bed, men's to the right. Containers and decorative leather hanging from the roof. People sleep with feet towards the doorway.
SAD.750/1/163
Braided leather with cowrie shells as decoration for tent and baggage bulls
SAD.750/1/164-167
Rains tent in the Babanusa. Covering of bark and undecorated mats. Forked post for cooking pot. (kalol)
SAD.750/1/168
Rains tent, including market goods (metal box and pail)
SAD.750/1/169-170
Tent in late rains in the Muglad, belonging to Jidya, wife of Hurgas Merida
SAD.750/1/171
Tent, early harvest
SAD.750/1/172-175
Harvest tents. When no more rain will fall, women roof their tents with decorated mats (shugug). Some extend walls right to the ground with straw against cold night winds.
SAD.750/1/176-177
Isolated harvest tent, beside garden at Byeyty, belonging to Sheybun's mother, El-Nogo
SAD.750/1/178-180
Tents with rakubas on Bahr, summer
SAD.750/1/181
Tents of thatch and bark in early rains
SAD.750/1/182
Permanent huts of grass and thatch at Gideyhat, village of former slaves
(d) Cattle
SAD.750/1/183-217
Humr recognise two kinds of local cattle - their own hurr animals, and Dinka cattle, jenage. Their own are longer-legged. Jenage animals look generally a bit squatter, and are less adept at walking swiftly and straight on migrations. Humr have a big range of words to distinguish animals by colour, patterning, shape or horns, and by stage of growth. Bulls are of three kinds - fahil for breeding, sheyly for baggage, and khassy (castrated) to grow fat and lead the herd. Animals are slaughtered near their natural death; occasionally young bulls are sacrificed; surplus stock, mainly young bulls and unproductive cows, are sold.
SAD.750/1/183
Tor be garaboba (flanks dark, back and belly white)
SAD.750/1/184
Tor sheyly (riding bull), with head rope
SAD.750/1/185
Bagara (or bara) rabda (white belly) be subagha (end of tail distinctive) showing ear clip used in combination with lineage brands to denote ownership
SAD.750/1/186
Bara rabda jengeyi (white belly, Dinka type)
SAD.750/1/187
Cow on millet field after harvest
SAD.750/1/188
Bara beida (white) with holi calf
SAD.750/1/189
Tor fahil, argad (breeding bull, with small spots)
SAD.750/1/190
Bara be dur`anna, hamly (foreleg and shoulders distinctive, in calf)
SAD.750/1/191
Bara karta (horns facing downwards)
SAD.750/1/192
Munsalab calves, one mashguga (wedge-shaped clip at end of ear
SAD.750/1/193
Calves in rain storm
SAD.750/1/194
Tired calf, with Sheybun Merida
SAD.750/1/195-196
Jeda` calf with shuwak to prevent it from sucking while grazing with the adult herd. Bara be garabobitta.
SAD.750/1/197
Cow whose calf has died (meri) with tulchan (bau) to persuade her to yield milk
SAD.750/1/198-199
Milking. Kartot calf
SAD.750/1/200
El Hunna Tobeyg removing tip of horn for safety. Some youths prefer to sharpen bulls' horns and boast of the damage they do.
SAD.750/1/201-202
Watering cattle at artificial trough (tebereyb) filled from wells nearby. Bahr
SAD.750/1/203
Bull saddled and tethered. The saddle (safina) rests on shredded bark as used for tent roofs.
SAD.750/1/204
Bull saddled and tied at tent
SAD.750/1/205-206
Making a bull saddle. A well made one of straw which has been soaked will last a year.
SAD.750/1/207
Bull rope, zumam, and how it is tied when not in use
SAD.750/1/208-209
Marking a calf with the shelga, the cattle brand (oraj) common to the `Ajaira section of the Humr. A second brand is applied which distinguishes the sub-section of its owner.
SAD.750/1/210-212
Branding a calf for veterinary purposes. Sheybun Merida and Jim`y Bakhit
SAD.750/1/213
Tor arbad, agharr (white belly, white face) with brand mark as cure
SAD.750/1/214
A team from the Sudan Veterinary Service waiting for cows to come
SAD.750/1/215-217
The team in action, inoculating cattle
(e) Grazing & watering
SAD.750/1/218-262
Rainfall increases from about 18 to 36 inches a year from north to south, and in the north is confined to about 3 months Movements are largely determined by availability of water. Sources of water are pools, watercourses, and wells, as follows. In the Babanusa, mostly small pools called khashm el-rahad, available July to September. In the Muglad, larger pools called bota, available from June and, perhaps lasting the whole year. In the Goz, pools again called khashm el-rahad and at early rains in the southern part, small clay kelgeya saucers. In the Bahr, the numerous winding and interconnected watercourses called regeba retaining diminishing pools until about March. In late dry season deep wells (bir) are dug or reopened in regeba beds; in the Babanusa shallow wells (mashish) may be dug if necessary during the rainy season. Water is pleasantly drinkable except when pools are shrinking in the Babanusa and the Goz. Humr can make acceptable badly polluted water by using alum to separate the water from other substances.
SAD.750/1/218-219
Grazing in the Babanusa, rains
SAD.750/1/220-223
Cattle in el-Magarin pool, Babanusa, rains
SAD.750/1/224-226
In a bota in the Muglad, November
SAD.750/1/227-234
Cattle taken by `azzaba to the Goz, November, to be away from harvest in progress in the Muglad
SAD.750/1/235-239
Cattle at a pool in the Goz, November
SAD.750/1/240
Grazing in regeba, Seidana, February
SAD.750/1/241
Grazing at Lau, February
SAD.750/1/242-244
Cattle of A. Kamil grazing in Regeba Umm Bioro at Aman, March
SAD.750/1/245
Grazing in the regeba at Buk
SAD.750/1/246-249
Cattle drinking from tebereyb, under discipline to avoid damage to lip of the trough
SAD.750/1/250
Wells (bir), and tebereyb prepared for filling, at Grimty (Fayyarin)
SAD.750/1/251-252
Wells at Shengel el-Tubaya (Fayyarin) in March
SAD.750/1/253
Wells, and weaver-birds' nests
SAD.750/1/254-255
Well in regeba with shelter
SAD.750/1/256
Carrying water to camp
SAD.750/1/257-259
Khashm el-rahad at El-`Efeyn, early rains
SAD.750/1/260
Shallow well, mashish, in Babanusa during dry spell in rains
SAD.750/1/261-262
Water pots and transport
(f) Cultivation
SAD.750/1/263-283
The staple is dukhn, bulrush millet; most cultivation takes place on the sand ridges (atamir ) in the Muglad. Maize and sorghum, okra and mallow, sesame and watermelon, are also grown. Granaries are erected near a group of gardens; a few people, mostly elderly, stay at them when others migrate to the Bahr. From there expeditions called jangala come north to replenish grain stocks and take them back to the camps. After W.W.II groundnuts (in the Muglad and the Babanusa) and cotton (in the Bahr and the Firshai) progressively increased as cash crops, but not on a grand scale.
SAD.750/1/263-264
Sowing millet; making scoops with makmak, boy following with seeds
SAD.750/1/265-266
Riding around on bulls to thresh millet
SAD.750/1/267
Cows fertilising harvested millet garden at Byeyty
SAD.750/1/268-270
Granaries, sararu, near gardens in the Muglad
SAD.750/1/271
Filling grain bags for transport to summer camps
SAD.750/1/272-273
Mobile flour mill visits Muglad
SAD.750/1/274-277
Careful clearing of ground for cotton cultivation by means of a working bee (nafir)
SAD.750/1/278
Cotton camp with harvest in the Firshai (identity unknown)
SAD.750/1/279
Cotton of Iyal Ganis at Seidana
SAD.750/1/280-281
Taking cotton from Seidana to Nyama in the Firshai for weighing and paying
SAD.750/1/282
At Nyama weighing centre, government employees inspect and repack cotton for onward transport by lorry
SAD.750/1/283
Cotton awaiting transport to ginning mill at Lagowa
(g) Markets
SAD.750/1/284-306
There is a permanent market at Muglad, with shops open daily; Baggara bring market goods on Thursdays. Seasonal nomad markets exist at Abyei, Nyama, Keylak, alongside permanent shops. Muglad market occupies a square with a row of brick-built Jellaba shops at each side. Baggara women offer their goods in the middle. They sit according to the order that their omodiyas move in, from Fayyarin in the west to Salamat in the east. In the separate livestock market, jenage animals are sold to the south of hurr animals, whoever owns them. Humr men habitually carry spears - except in the market.
SAD.750/1/284-289
Sellers and buyers in Muglad market. Main items on offer by Baggara women are bottles of liquid butter, mats, woodland scents. Clay pots are on sale, but they are mostly brought by women of the Messiriya Zurg from Lagowa district, and sold at the east.
SAD.750/1/290
Market scene. The long canes support aerials for Jellaba merchants' wirelesses.
SAD.750/1/291
Shouting the description of a missing cow around the market. Anyone seen it?
SAD.750/1/292-299
Buyers and promenaders at Muglad market. Examples of fashionable dress (1953-4 season).
SAD.750/1/300
The woman wears silver head ornaments including waraga jinn geyyel, a pointed container for a faghir's text
SAD.750/1/301-304
The livestock market at Muglad
SAD.750/1/305-306
Seasonal market at Nyama
(h) People
SAD.750/1/307-330
Some residents at one time or another of the camp of Hurgas Merida, omda of the Mezaghna. Most belong to his surra, Iyal Ganis
SAD.750/1/307-308
Hurgas Merida, omda of the Mazaghna
SAD.750/1/309-314
Sheybun Merida, half-brother of Hurgas
SAD.750/1/315
Sheybun, El-Hunna Tobeyg his paternal cousin, and Kauja, son of Merida Adam, at Goleh
SAD.750/1/316-317
Merida Adam, Hurgas' paternal second cousin
SAD.750/1/318-319
Hammoda Geydum, of the `Ariya branch of the Mezaghna, who married Sheybun's full sister
SAD.750/1/320
El-Neimy Sulum, daughter of a Fayyarin man. Her mother was twice widowed, then brought her two children to live beside her brothers in this camp.
SAD.750/1/321
Omer El-Nagy whose parents died of cerebro-spinal meningitis within a few days of one another
SAD.750/1/322-323
Omer being held by Sulum Hurgas, his late mother's MBS
SAD.750/1/324
Orphan Omer with his mother's sister Umm Foty
SAD.750/1/325
Seated centre: El-Ju` Kammin, Sheybun's mother's brother. His father was a Dinka slave; El-Ju` is now fully integrated into the camp. Walking, Sulum Hurgas.
SAD.750/1/326
Left, Umm Beddy son of Hurgas Merida
SAD.750/1/327
Kauja son of Merida Adam, and `Isa Menawwir
SAD.750/1/328-330
`Isa Menawwir, maternal half-brother to the late husband of Hurgas's sister. Her daughters treat him as if he was their paternal uncle. He belongs to the Terakana section of Mezaghna
SAD.750/1/331-374
People outside the family of Iyal Ganis
SAD.750/1/331-332
Boya el-Zein, Shaikh of Iyal Rigeyby, the lineage closest to Iyal Ganis, with his kinsman Abbakar `Abbad
SAD.750/1/333-335
Abbakar
SAD.750/1/336
Shaikh Hijja of Iyal Jabir
SAD.750/1/337
Kusum at Ajaj
SAD.750/1/338
Belal at Lau
SAD.750/1/339-340
Musa Heymir, a skilled giraffe hunter
SAD.750/1/341-342
Portraits
SAD.750/1/343
Uthman Shintu at Dimsoya
SAD.750/1/344-345
Shaikh Ahmed Shigeyfa of the `Ariya section of Mezaghna
SAD.750/1/346-349
`Ali Nimr, Nazir of the `Ajaira and half-brother of Nazir Babo Nimr
SAD.750/1/350
`Ali Nimr watching the dancing
SAD.750/1/351
`Abd el-Gasim Musa, omda of the Fayyarin
SAD.750/1/352
`Abd el-Gasim Musa with Mohed. Kubr and Mohed. Ashemmoat Shengel el-Tubaya
SAD.750/1/353
At Grimty
SAD.750/1/354
`Abd el-Gasim Musa at his tree at Umm Sha`raya
SAD.750/1/355
Yusuf Adam, omda of the Ziyud, in the sahaly (toic) of Koya
SAD.750/1/356-357
Subeyr el-Haj, omda of the Jubarat and brother of the Felaita nazir Sereir. At Ghorobat
SAD.750/1/358
Sh. Hammad of the Barokela
SAD.750/1/359-360
Mohed. Kubr, anthropologist's assistant (from Dar Umm Sheyba Zerga, A. Kamil) 750/1/361 Mohed. Kubr and Hurgas Merida near end of munshagh migration 1953. (Coronation day in UK, as later discovered)
SAD.750/1/362
Hurgas and Mohed
SAD.750/1/363-364
Mohed. Kubr and wife Fatny with their children
SAD.750/1/365
Horse with anthropologist, in the Babanusa
SAD.750/1/366-367
Nimr son of Hurgas, local government official
SAD.750/1/368
Local government messenger
SAD.750/1/369
Local government official
SAD.750/1/370-373
Executive Officer, Muglad
SAD.750/1/374
Abu Jabr el-Haj, local government official, brother of Sereyr and Subeyr el-Haj
(i) Horses
SAD.750/1/375-398
Men and women ride bulls; only men ride horses. A horse is the ‘fitting' mount for a man but by no means all men have them. They are used as ordinary personal transport, for scouting after grazing and water, for leading cattle on migration, and for hunting.
SAD.750/1/375-376
Horse feeding on hay brought to it in camp. Horses are tethered or hobbled but mares often go free.
SAD.750/1/377-379
Horse with hay and grain bag (millet)
SAD.750/1/380-382
Bulls bringing fresh birdi grass (Echinochloa stagnina) from regeba for horses in camp
SAD.750/1/383-384
Horses eating birdi grass in camp
SAD.750/1/385
Grazing in the Goz, rushash
SAD.750/1/386-387
Bleeding a horse against the disease of bugur, a mild paralysis
SAD.750/1/388-391
Feeding a horse with sesame in build-up for a giraffe hunt
SAD.750/1/392
Making a hobble (shukal). Hammoda Geydum at Ja`bateyn
SAD.750/1/393
Unkempt horse
SAD.750/1/394-395
Onlookers at a Muglad horse show
SAD.750/1/396-398
Horse-running at Muglad
(j) Giraffe hunt
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The expedition set off from the Iyal Ganis summer camp at Umm Dululu on 19 April 1954: four hunter horses and their riders, and nineteen bulls ridden by men and women, who made up the umm gharagha who did the work other than the hunting. The area was a week's trek eastwards, in the talh and toic some miles east of Werfing. The expedition rejoined the cattle camp on 9 May. An account of Humr interest in giraffe, largely based on this trip, appeared in Sudan Notes & Records, 1958
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Sand divination (khatt) on the prospects for the hunt. Abakkar, left, divines for Hurgas, right, owner of one of the hunter horses.
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Hurgas gives his horse medication for success in the hunt; ink from a text washed off a wooden board (loh) written by a faghir
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The expedition (dermada) on the way to the sahaly
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A midday break. Rough shelters of cloth and mats so that women may eat without men seeing them
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Shade for men and horses
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The route goes through the country of Rweng Dinka who at this season have mostly moved south with their cattle. Dukduks all the way.
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Dinka visitors at resting places
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Packing and unpacking
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In the Sahaly, nearing the hunting area
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The giraffe camp (dankuch) before the hunt, with tied horses and women's makeshift tents in background
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After leaving camp in the dark, halt at dawn. Puttees being tied with strips of bark to be secured against thorns.
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The hunter horses on the trail of giraffe
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A rider has speared the hind quarters of a giraffe
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Coup de grace
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Hunters relaxing after the chase
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Hot horse
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Musa Heymir after his kill
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He cuts off the giraffe's tail
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Rides with it dangling from his saddle
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Covering giraffe against vultures pending arrival of butchering party
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Umm gharagha arrives and cuts up the giraffe
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Making umm nyolokh, a delicious and hallucinatory mixture of pounded giraffe liver and marrow
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Bulls laden with meat and hide leave the site of a kill
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Scenes in the dankuch, with drying meat
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Dankuch, including Dinka visitors
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Strips of giraffe hide for stringing angereybs being stretched with weights. Bull saddle; horse saddle on ground
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The expedition returns to Dar Humr, passing a tebeldi
(k) Drumming and dancing
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Daytime drumming and dancing are usually set pieces on days of Islamic festivals, or VIP visits. There is no picture of the usual, and most orderly dauriya, in which women form up in a cross which revolves slowly on its axis while men circle round it.
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Drumming for a dance
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Audience and participants
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Horsemen galloping past dancers
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Women dancing beside the drums
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Boys and young men dancing, typically with ostrich feathers, walking sticks and woollen sleeveless jerseys
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Women typically wear a patterned frock over long skirt, bareheaded showing off silver ornaments. They snatch turbans off men's heads, wear them as belts and flap the long ends when dancing.
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Young girls wear kamfus waist cloth, and flap turbans
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Dancing with spears. Men twirl spears and jab the air over girls' heads in appreciation.
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A couple dancing, copying one another's sudden movements as quickly and accurately as possible
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Men circling round women
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Men getting their horses to dance in rhythm
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Women dancers with banknotes in their hair, put there by admiring men
(l) The end of a blood feud
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Awlad Salamy and Terakana sections of the Mezaghna had inflicted deaths on one another in a feud over some years. Eventually circumstances became promising for a settlement. This was effected in a solemn ceremonial murda` when the parties' camps were near one another in the Muglad.
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Awlad Salamy discussing terms for peace-making before meeting their Terakana adversaries
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On the way to the peace-making ceremony
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Hurgas Merida as leader of A. Salamy surrounded by his elders have last minute discussions
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At the peace-making, held in Kubu Menago, a thicket in the Muglad. Making the speeches
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Saying the Fatha together at the end of the feud. It was heard in the presence of distinguished neutrals and mediators including Mekki `Ali Julla (a court president, omda of Muglad town, and Nazir Babo's uncle), who chaired the meeting.
(m) Contacts with other groups
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Humr mix with Dinka when they go to their dry season camps, in the territories of the Ngok and Rweng Dinka - and sometimes as far as the Bul Nuer. The Messiriya Rural Council, which meets at El Fula, includes the Ngok whose Nazir Deng Majok, who lives at Abyei, has been its president. Some Dinka men and women have been slaves and latterly servants in Humr camps. Such service now is the nearest employment which most Ngok are able to find. Members of the Salamat omodiya enter relations with Nuba, who may contract to herd cattle for them in the hills. Fellata from Nigeria and Niger regularly wander through Dar Humr with their herds. Hamar come south to sell grain in Muglad market specially in September and October.
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Dinka visitors at Seidana
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Nazir `Ali Nimr (right) in camp at Lau near Abyei entertains (on deck chairs) men of Nazir Deng Majok, with Arab visitors on mats
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Dinka visitors to Hurgas Merida's tree
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Kharfan (centre), who is half Dinka, interprets for Dinka visitor. Usually a kind of pidgin Arabic is enough to communicate by.
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Dinka settlement and Arab ferig close together, Lau
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A few Dinka in Deng Majok's entourage keep horses. Here is one being led to water by a servant.
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Dinka fish drive in Regeba Angol, March 1954
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Dinka fishing with baskets in Regeba Angol
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Dinka fishing in Regeba Umm Bioro at Fadlalla
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Dinka joining in with Arab men and women to watch the dancing
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Passing remains of rainy-season Bul Nuer cattle camp at Umm Seneyny. Hurgas Merida, Hammad Jabir, Sheybun
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Fellata cattle watering at Kurru in the Goz. Very distinctive red cattle with large splayed horns.
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Fellata baggage bull. Arab cattle behind
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Fellati herdsman, showing distinctive dress
(n) Miscellaneous short sequences
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Sacrifice of a madmun bull calf. Hurgas made a pledge that if the hakuma brought a weighing machine to Seidana for the 1954 cotton harvest he would sacrifice a bull. It did, and so saved him arranging a caravan to Nyama.
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Pounding grain for wedding festivities outside the specially constructed oval wedding tent
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Wedding tents of the Salamat omodiya are - like their ordinary tents - of bigger and better construction than others
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Interior of Salamat wedding tent
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Wedding tent in a camp, Wadi el Ghalla (identity unknown)
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Trap (sherek). Women making wedding preparations block the path of passing men, seize an object such as spear or turban, returnable on payment of a cash forfeit
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Boy on horseback arriving for circumcision
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Singing in front of circumcision rakuba (kin tebki ma baghanni leyk, if you cry I won't sing for you). The upturned mortar is the traditional seat for the operator.
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Slaughtering a jeda` bull calf on account of circumcision
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Traps set by women on the occasion of a girl's circumcision
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Preparing rob. Milk has set in the calabash overnight. It gives a deep sloshing sound as the woman shakes it to and fro to break it up at dawn. Grainbags and heaps of millet
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Faghir with client, writing text on loh
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Smoking out bees and collecting honey from hive at foot of tree, in the southern Goz, February
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Mohed. Kubr and Kireyfan Jedid barbecuing a guinea-fowl
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Adam Hamadeyn of A. Kamil singing in praise of tea. He is a member of one of the Baramka clubs which meet to honour tea and drink it in a ceremonial way.
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The children's game of umm tabara
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Children up a tree
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The adult game of dala - being played in Ramadan
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Girl plaiting tuft of hair on boy's head
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Kauja and Hawa plucking a cockerel
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Fayyarin girl on dumbelo pods
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Girl with egret at Buk
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Boy on one leg, Nilotic fashion
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Nazir Babo Nimr with dignitaries at District Headquarters in El Fula
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The choice of candidates at the 1954 elections
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The hustings. In deckchair, Sayed El Fadil Mahmud, grandson of the Mahdi and father-in-law of Nazir Babo. Canvassing in Kubu Menago in the Muglad among `Ajaira. He was the successful candidate.
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A khor opened across the road near El Fula in heavy night rain. Next morning goods and lorry are salvaged.
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Dajo dancing at a fantasiya in Lagowa
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Dajo band
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Nuba fun and games
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Kajbur pool (bota) in the Muglad, deret
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Mogran pool in the Muglad after rain
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Crossing the Wadi el Ghalla
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Goz views in rushash
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Regeba Umm Bioro, with pelicans
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Regeba Umm Bioro with ducks and goats
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Duhul el-Buyud with pelicans
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The mound (debby) of ‘King Buk' of the Shatt
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Grimty, the regeba in March
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Parkland at Grimty
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Midday rest at Se`dy on the way from Regeba Zerga to Keylak
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Pool in a thicket in the Muglad, December
2. Official Papers
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1933 Jul
Paper by E.G. Sarsfield-Hall, Governor Khartoum Province entitled “Memorandum on the lay out and development of Khartoum, Khartoum North and Omdurman” Compiled with the assistance of I.G. Watson, Asst. Municipal Engineer
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1964
Statement by El Nazeer Dafaalla, Vice-Chancellor of the University of Khartoum to the staff of the university on Wednesday 4 Nov 1964 concerning the recent crisis which culminated in confrontation between students and police, the death of a student and the mass resignation of nearly all Sudanese staff
3. Map
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1952 Jan
Street plan of Omdurman (without street names)
scale:   1 to 10,000
Size: 56 x 86 cm
4. Printed material