P. J. Sandison
Paul James Sandison

1. Official Papers
(a) Darfur, 1929-1935
(b) Equatoria, 1935-1939
(c) Kassala province, 1939-1942
(d) Tripolitania, 1945-1948
2. Personal Papers
3. Lectures, Articles, Books (drafts)
(a) Lectures
(b) Articles
(c) Books
4. Photographic Material
(a) Photographs
(b) Cinefilms
5. Maps
Printed Material
(a) In Archive
Printed material
Reference code: GB-0033-SAD
Title: P. J. Sandison
Dates of creation: 1926-1959
Extent: 3 boxes
Held by: Durham University Library, Archives and Special Collections
Created by: P. J. Sandison
Language: English

Paul James Sandison


1928-1929 Assistant District Commissioner, Mongalla
1929-1930 Assistant District Commissioner, Kutum, Darfur
1931-1932 Assistant District Commissioner / Assistant Resident, Zalingei, Darfur
1932 Resident, Zalingei, Darfur
1933-1935 Assistant Resident, El Geneina, Darfur
1935-1938 Assistant District Commissioner, Juba, Equatoria
1939 District Commissioner, Juba, Equatoria
1939-1941 Assistant District Commissioner, Kassala
1941-1942 District Commissioner, Kassala
1942-1945 Governor-General's temporary Commission in the Sudan Defence Force (Bimbashi 1942; Kaimakam 1943)
1945 Seconded to British Military Administration, Tripolitania
1946-1948 Deputy Chief Secretary (Lt Col)
1948-1950 Assistant Commissioner of Labour, Civil Secretary's Office
1950-1954 Commissioner of Labour
1954 Retired


1. Official Papers
(a) Darfur
(b) Equatoria
(c) Kassala Province
(d) Tripolitania
2. Personal Papers
3. Lectures, Articles, Books (drafts)
4. Photographic Material
(a) Photographs
(b) Cinefilms
5. Maps
6. Printed Material
(a) In Archive
(b) In Library

Accession details

Presented by Dr. G.E. Wickens, 1968, Mrs. A. Sandison, 1975-1987 and Dr R. S. O'Fahey, 1975

1. Official Papers
(a) Darfur, 1929-1935
Notes on the history, language and ethnography of Darfur, including:
Plan of `Ali Dinar's house and grounds, El Fasher, with key copied from an original of 30 Jun 1910
Size: 34 x 21 cm
1933 Nov 18
Notes on the Dimbari or locust charmer, by P.J.S.
Notes on Zalingei made by C.G. Dupuis and others in 1926
SAD.511/4/18 19
Notes on compensation for blood among the Fur
1933 Jan 19
Map of the Zalingei Amirate showing trade routes, by P.J.S.
scale:   1 to 1,000,000
Size: 36 x 22 cm
1933 Jan 20
Notes on the geography and trade of Zalingei Amirate, by P.J.S.
Small notebook containing notes by P.J.S. on a variety of Fur topics: history, language, local customs etc.
Historical notes
Ethnographic notes
1932 Feb 10
Report by P.J.S. on the political aspects of the Bir Natrun reconnaissance
1933 Jan 18
Report on Zalingei Amirate administration, by P.J.S.
SAD.730/1/32 49
1933 Feb 28
Notes by P.J.S. on the use of the Bagnold sun compass for plotting roads in Zalingei District, with related correspondence from S.L. Milligan, Director of Surveys and G.T. Whitehouse, Inspector of Surveys
Family tree showing the descendants of Sultan Muhammad al Fadl `Abd al-Rahman, sultan of Darfur and grandfather of `Ali Dinar
Plan of the palace of Sultan Muhammad al-Fadl `Abd al-Rahman at El Fasher
Plan of Sultan `Ali Dinar's palace and grounds at El Fasher (2 copies)
Size: 37 x 24 cm
Key to the plan above of `Ali Dinar's palace and grounds with chronological table of events in Darfur
Note by A.J. Arkell on a case of witchcraft tried by him in Dar Erenga
(b) Equatoria, 1935-1939
[c. 1937]
Paper on economic policy for the Sudan, first and second drafts
(c) Kassala province, 1939-1942
SAD.730/2/20 74
1940 Jul 9-1941 Jan 16
Official correspondence between P.J.S. at Tindelai and Aroma and province staff at Sinkat during the Italian occupation of Kassala:
1940 Jul 9
G.D. Lampen re lack of intelligence information from the R.A.F., the order to destroy grain and paraffin at Aroma, the need to control the Gash despite Italian infiltration and plans for a possible evacuation
SAD.730/2/23 25
1940 Jul 19
B. Kennedy-Cooke re plans for the continued administration of the Gash
1940 Aug 2
B. Kennedy-Cooke re arrangements for the protection of the Gash
1940 Aug 17
B. Kennedy-Cooke re administrative matters
SAD.730/2/28 30
1940 Aug 18
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re the extent of Italian military forces in Kassala, the arrival of refugees from Abyssinia and the state of the cotton crop
1940 Aug 26
P.J.S. to G.D. Lampen re the situation in Kassala, progress with the cotton crop and the inevitability of losing the Gash to the Italians
1940 Sep 15
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re results of raids on Kassala, Italian aerial reconnaissance trips and the shortage of merchandise
1940 Sep 15
P.J.S. to E.C. Haselden re the general situation in the area
1940 Sep 23
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re false intelligence of an imminent attack by the Italians and progress of the cotton crop
1940 Nov 1
E.C. Haselden to P. Hogg re tribal strengths within the Gash and the disposal of grain
1940 Nov 13
P.J.S. to G.D. Lampen re strengthening of the Italian garrison at Kassala, the clearing of a new landing ground north of Aroma and preparations for the evacuation
1940 Nov 17
G.D. Lampen re current military and police strength and available transport
1940 Nov 19
E.C. Haselden re preparations for the evacuation of Goz Regeb suq to the west bank of the Atbara
1940 Nov 21
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re work on improving roads, progress on the new airfield at Aroma, lack of morale among the volunteers of Frostyforce, merchandise control and Italian strength at Kassala
1940 Nov 22
P.J.S. to E.C. Haselden re the banning of civilian cars and discussions on the levying of tribute from the Hadanduwa
1940 Nov 22
P.J.S. to G.D. Lampen re transport for evacuation
1940 Nov 26
B. Kennedy-Cooke re supplies for Frostyforce and the need to collect tribute
1940 Nov 26
E.C. Haselden re the need to move the police post at Goz Regeb
1940 Nov 27
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re military positions in the Gash and the strength of the Italian force
1940 Nov 27
P.J.S. to E.C. Haselden with an update of the situation
1940 Dec 4
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re recent air-raids, the extension of the vegetable scheme at Goz Regeb, prospects for the grain crop and the progress of road building
1940 Dec 10
E.C. Haselden re the movement of merchandise
1940 Dec 15
P.J.S. to B. Kennedy-Cooke re enemy attacks at Goz Regeb
1940 Dec 17
B. Kennedy-Cooke re air raids at Sinkat and Port Sudan
1941 Jan 16
B. Kennedy-Cooke re medical and sanitary preparations for the advance on Kassala
1940 Aug 2 - Nov 1
Child's guide to the Gash by P.J.S. (original with amended version)
1940 Aug 12 - 15
Note by the Governor-General on the protection of the native population during current hostilities, with explanatory letter from B. Kennedy-Cooke to P.J.S.
1940 Aug 18
Memorandum by P.J.S. at Tindelai re the loss of government money during the evacuation of Kassala
1940 Sep 5
Note on the arrival of reinforcements in Kassala District
1940 Sep 8
Note on the Bija and Red Sea Districts of Kassala by B. Kennedy Cooke, Governor (2nd edition)
1940 Sep 21
Note by P.J.S. on “The local authority at war”
1940 Sep 22 - Nov 24
Telegrams re the use of railway trolleys and the transfer of police from Aroma
1940 Sep 24
List of points raised with B. Kennedy Cooke at Tindelai
1940 Oct 15 and n.d.
Notes on Atbara administration
1940 Oct 30
Note by B. Kennedy Cooke, Governor Kassala on Gash area plans, including instructions on the movement and control of local population, the formation of Frostyforce, evacuation plans, etc
1940 Nov 13
Note by D.C. Cumming on the duties of a security officer in the Southern district
1940 Nov 20
Evacuation orders for Gash District
1940 Nov 24
Memorandum on the organisation of the police force into province police, static guards and gendarmerie
1940 Nov 25
Note by B. Kennedy Cooke of preliminary arrangements for the reoccupation of Kassala
1940 Dec 4
List by P.J.S. of points raised by the note above (730/3/48 49)
1940 Nov 26
Note on the reoccupation of Kassala by E.C. Haselden
1940 Nov 30, Dec 20
Memoranda by B. Kennedy-Cooke on the re occupation of Kassala
1940 Dec 7
Memorandum by P.J.S on public security in the Gash area
1940 Dec 26
Memorandum from the Colonel Commanding Gazelle re the administration of Frostyforce
1940 Dec
Note on population control in areas of military operations
1941 Jan 11
Note of alterations to evacuation orders above (730/3/41-46)
1941 Jan 2
Memorandum on the hostile aircraft warning system
Gazelle intelligence summary no.9 for the period ending 2 Jan 1941
1941 Jan 16
Memorandum by B. Kennedy Cooke re stores required at Aroma in the event of a re occupation of Kassala
1941 Jan 18
Note of arrangements for the re-occupation of Kassala
1941 Feb 27
Copy of a document captured from the Italians on their failure to infiltrate the area north of Kassala due to the actions of Frostyforce, with covering letter from D. Newbold, Civil Secretary
“A history of the Beja tribes of the Sudan”, by P.J.S. (ts.)
(d) Tripolitania, 1945-1948
1944 - 1947
Papers re Italian land settlement in Tripolitania:
Ethnographical sketch map of Tripolitania showing distribution of various tribes in adjacent territories
Size: 51 x 26 cm
Map of Tripolitania
scale:   1 to 1,000,000
Size: 38 x 34 cm
Map of the Libyan coastline, showing Italian land settlement
scale:   1 to 2,500,000
Size: 63 x 20 cm
Report on Italian land settlement in Tripolitania, comparing the different methods used by Ente per la Colonizzazione della Libia (ENTE) and the Istituto Nazionale Fascista Previdenza Sociale (I.N.P.S.)
1944 Jul
“Some considerations of the works of ENTE Colonisation Libya” translated from U. Marroni's report (Director of ENTE)
1945 Sep
Report on the situation of ENTE by U. Marroni (copy)
General account of I.N.P.S. colonisation
1945 Nov 6
Report on the colonisation works and requirements of I.N.P.S. by Ing. Gabet (copy)
1948 Mar 5 - 8
Memoranda from H.E. Bannister, Administrative Officer, to P.J.S. re the terms under which settlements were made by ENTE and I.N.P.S.
2. Personal Papers
1957 Sep 9 - 1959 Dec 29
Personal correspondence from the Fabian Colonial Bureau concerning P.J.S.' review of The labour movement in the Sudan 1946-55 by Saad el Din Fawzi and from H. Maule re his research into the campaigns of Sir Frank Messervy
3. Lectures, Articles, Books (drafts)
(a) Lectures
1948 Oct 15
Lecture by P.J.S. on “Recent developments in Libya” given to the Royal Institute of International Affairs, Middle East Group
(b) Articles
1934 Jan
“The Libyan Desert again”, an account by P.J.S. of an airborne reconnaissance trip to Bir Natrun and Merga Oases (Ts. copy with ms. draft)
“The Mrs. Grey”, an account by P.J.S. of a hunting trip near Bor in search of a Nile lechwe (known also as a Mrs. Grey). Two ts. copies with slight alterations in the second copy
“Round the bend”, parts 1 and 2, an account by P.J.S. of his involvement in hunting, both as a child and during his years in the Sudan
“Joe Snooks remembers. Travelling in the desert” ... and “Travelling in the south”
“Locusts”, an account of locust control measures in the Sudan
“Hyenas laugh in Grosvenor Square”, a description of P.J.S.' house in Mongalla
Article on Libya by P.J.S. intended as a section in Survey of North West Africa edited by N. Barbour for Chatham House. The article covers the geography and history of Libya up to independence and government, health, education, agriculture, industry, justice, etc. (Draft copy included)
1956 - 1958
Papers relating to the article above including synopsis (730/6/103-106) and correspondence between P.J.S. and the editor N. Barbour and with other friends and former colleagues who provided information, statistics, etc. on Libya since independence
(c) Books
1928 - 1932
The unfinished memoirs of P.J.S. covering service as A.D.C. in Mongalla and Darfur
1936 Apr 12
Xerox copy of English Fur vocabulary by P.J.S., with amendments by G.E. Wickens, 17 Jul 1968
History of Tripolitania by P.J. and A.M. Sandison (ts.). Section I deals with the history of Tripolitania from 700 B.C. to 1930 A.D. Section II deals with the development of modern Tripolitania, 1922 - 1940
“Consul Warrington, Master of Tripoli”, an account of the Consul generalship of Colonel Hanmer Warrington, 1814 - c.1846, (author unknown), with notes on his military career and family
4. Photographic Material
(a) Photographs
1934 - 1936
Photographs of the Sudan and Tunis:
La Cour du Palais, Tunis (postcard)
Cattle at water hole (postcards)
Photographs of Libya, including one of the Governor-General, Maresciallo Balbo, originally enclosed in a book
Newspaper photograph of the ruins of a temple from Leptis Magna in Tripolitania, erected at Virginia Water in 1746
(b) Cinefilms
Original cinefilms taken by P.J.S. in the Sudan and Kenya during the 1930s and 1940s. Most of the films are unidentified but they include scenes shot in Khartoum, Mongalla, Equatoria and Kassala. The quality is generally fairly poor.
1935 - 1936
Khartoum zoo including birds and giraffe; saqiyah at edge of Nile; steamer at Shambe; looking for game through binoculars; Juba Dec 1935; men sawing wood, cutting wood and carrying bundles of grass; P.J.S.'s new house; duck shoot, 1936; pygmy elephants on bank by Nile steamer; loading elephants on to steamer; carrying bananas on to steamer
8mm, black and white, 5 minutes

Digital copy
[n.d. c. 1929 - 1935]
Crossing the Wadi Azum in the rains with horses and camels; Goraan camel saddle; unsaddling camel; horse jumping competition at El Fasher; camel race; gymkhana and polo; hearing a legal case, sitting under a tree; French doctor's boat at Adré; children drawing water; men and women spinning thread and weaving; Sudanese children with home-made carts; view from moving car in Rhodes; Acropolis; Corinth canal
8mm, black and white, 10 minutes

Digital copy
[n.d. ca. 1929 - 1935]
El Obeid - Fasher road; lorry stuck in sand; mule trekking to Zalingei; loading-up; Fur band of musicians; horses at Geneina; watering horses; baby giraffe; cheetah cubs; Arab girls; wild leopard; suq at Geneina; British official with horse
8mm, black and white, 5½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1941]
Kassala. Bija tribesmen in mock fights; camel with `utfah ; camel race; large herd of cattle
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1938]
Imatong Mountains and Kenya. British family on picnic; children playing in garden and on swing
8mm, black and white, 3½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1937]
Garden scenes; British children with toy car; picnic in garden; open-topped car
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1934]
Aeroplane; desert convoy; aeroplane taking off
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1934]
Marquee; camel; hay market; women making road
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1938]
Sailing boats on Nile with British crew; combing flax; rope making
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1937]
Sudanese dancing; British men and women bathing in pool at Amadi and playing with rowing boat; group of young men lined up at Juba; British officials handing out clothing (?)
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
[n.d. ca. 1928 - 1935]
Weaving on hand loom at Lui; Bari women grinding corn; British women and children on picnic
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1935]
Ancient Fur headdress; C.G.D. getting his C.B.E. before guard of honour; lorry on road; Aswan dam; aeroplane ready for take-off
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1940]
Suakin: fishing from boat; view of houses; euphorbia in Kassala; swimming pool; horses
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1938]
Locust control
8mm, black and white, 1½ minutes

Digital copy
[ca. 1938]
Azande village; sudd ; steamer on Nile; baby in pram; Malakal boats; ambach canoe
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
1937 Nov
Descent from Imatong Mountains with porters; paying porters; driving car; Annette being carried down by chair from Okaru R.C. Intermediate School
8mm, black and white, 2½ minutes

Digital copy
Christmas at Juba mission station
8mm, black and white, 1 minute

Digital copy
Dead lion, shot by “Rudolf” ; Bussere ferry; getting car on and off ferry; anqarib leg turning; men carrying loads; tame buffalo; Azande family
8mm, black and white, 3 minutes

Digital copy
SAD.Video 16
Time-coded VHS video copy of films 692/1 - 692/8 above
SAD.Video 17
Time-coded VHS video copy of films 692/9 - 692/17 and 730/7 above
5. Maps
1930 Apr
Map of the Bija Districts of Kassala Province by the Sudan Survey Department
scale:   1 to 3,000,000
Size: 25 x 34 cm
Sketch map showing the distribution of forest on the Imatong - Acholi ranges, made by P.J.S. during a flight with Col. Cave, 1 Nov 1939 (2 copies)
1 in. to 4 miles
Size: 21.5 x 35 cm
Ethnographical sketch map of Tripolitania, also showing the distribution of various tribes in adjacent territories. Government press, Tripolitania
scale:   No scale
Size: 61 x 30 cm
Road map of Libya. Government press, Tripolitania
scale:   1 to 2,000,000
Size: 86 x 47 cm
Printed Material
(a) In Archive
Review by A. Aziz Allouni of The labour movement in the Sudan, 1945 1955 by Saad El Din Fawzi (O.U.P. 1957), from The Middle East journal v.12 no.1 (1958)
Printed material
Printed material deposited with collection; now integrated into library and catalogued on OPAC