Balfour, F.C.C.
Francis Cecil Campbell BALFOUR

1. Official Papers
(a) Berber Province
(b) Nuba Mountains
(c) Iraq, including papers concerning Gertrude Bell
(d) Mongalla
2. Personal Papers
(a) Papers of Balfour
(b) Papers of Gertrude Bell
SAD.3. Articles, Speeches
4. Newspaper cuttings
5. Printed Material
Reference code: GB-0033-SAD
Title: Balfour, F.C.C.
Dates of creation: 1892-1958
Extent: 1 box
Held by: Durham University Library, Archives and Special Collections
Created by: material relating to service in the Sudan
Language: English

Francis Cecil Campbell BALFOUR


1906-1912 Public Works Department, Port Sudan
1912 Appointed to Sudan Political Service
1912-1914 2nd Inspector, Berber Province
1914 Acting Governor, Ed-Damer, Berber Province
1916 2nd Inspector, Talodi, Nuba Mountains
1916-1917 2nd Inspector, Gedaref, Kassala Province
1917-1920 Seconded for service in Iraq
1919-1920 Military Governor of Baghdad
1921-1922 Assistant Director of Intelligence (Sudan)
1923-1924 Deputy Governor, Kassala
1924-1925 Seconded as Military Secretary to the Governor of Madras
1926-1927 Deputy Governor, Port Sudan, Red Sea Province
1927 Governor, Red Sea Province
1929-1931 Governor, Mongalla
1931 Retired from the Sudan Political Service
1931-1936 Representative, Peruvian Corporation in Peru and Bolivia
1937-1938 Chairman, International Sugar Council
1936-1940 Chairman, Sugar Commission
1939-1951 Ministry of Food
1944-1945 U.N.N.R.A. in Greece and Egypt
Director of Frederick Braby and Co., Ltd.
Chairman and Managing Director, Airports Ltd.


1. Official Papers
(a) Berber Province
(b) Nuba Mountains
(c) Iraq, including papers concerning Gertrude Bell
(d) Mongalla
2. Personal Papers
(a) Papers of Balfour
(b) Papers of Gertrude Bell
3. Articles, Speeches
4. Newspaper Cuttings
5. Printed Material

1. Official Papers
(a) Berber Province
1915 May 5
Route report by Balfour on the Atbai patrol from Abu Hamed to Halaib
(b) Nuba Mountains
1915 Oct 28
Private note by M.J. Wheatley on government policy towards Faqi `Ali, with explanatory letter to Balfour
1915 Dec 20-1916 Jan 5
Letters of congratulations from Wingate, Governor-General, to Balfour on his role in the surrender of Faqi `Ali and his subsequent "Nile" decoration and re prospects for military action against the Sultan of Darfur
(For further references to Faqi `Ali, see under 2. Personal Papers and 3. Articles, Speeches)
1916 Mar 3
Letter from R.S. Wilson, Governor Nuba Mountains Province, to Balfour re the latter's transfer to Gedaref in Kassala Province and re pressure of work in Nuba Mountains Province
(c) Iraq, including papers concerning Gertrude Bell
1914 May 20
Report by Louis Mallet to Sir E. Grey on Gertrude Bell's travels in the Syrian Desert and Arabia and her assessment of the tribes with which she came in contact and of the prospects and influence of Ibn Rashid and Ibn Sa`ud
1914 Sep 5
Extract from a letter from Gertrude Bell on the political situation in Arabia and Syria
1916 Dec 3
Paper by Gertrude Bell on Abd al-Aziz ibn Sa`ud, with covering letter from P.Z. Cox, Chief Political Officer Basra to the India Office
1918 Mar 19-Jun 2
Papers concerning the Najaf uprising consisting mainly of copy telegrams between Balfour, (Political Officer Najaf), A.T. Wilson (Political Baghdad), Gen. G.A. Sanders at Kufa, Leachman (Political Kufa) and Prothero (Political Abu Sakhair) re the course of the uprising; terms offered to the insurgents; decision to blockade the town; appeal from the `ulamas to lift the blockade; shortage of food and water; Balfour re the political advantages to be gained from the release of leading `ulamas and their households (303/2/33-34); P.O. Shamiyah re the possibility of the revolt spreading in support of Najaf (303/2/51-52); appeals for clemency from the `ulamas to the G.O.C. in Mesopotamia (303/2/42-43), from the merchants (303/2/44) and from students, merchants and all Persian residents of the town (303/2/45-46); G.O.C. re the decision to bombard the town (303/2/64); Sanders re plans for the occupation of Najaf and re the military situation around the town (303/2/117-118); gradual arrests of insurgents; G.O.C.'s refusal to allow the import of bread (303/2/106); preparations for the trial and discussion of punishments to be handed out (303/2/17-148); raising the blockade (303/2/122). Sanders re the decision to leave the town walls standing and the future garrison for Najaf (303/2/123-126); arrangements for the military court (303/2/129-133) and sentences imposed (303/2/140). Also includes:
Report by Gen. Sanders on the course of the uprising, the murder of Capt. Marshall and terms to be offered to the insurgents
Statements from local people
Lists of persons involved in the murder of Capt. Marshall, those to be offered unconditional surrenders and `ulamas and shaikhs to be invited to a meeting to discuss the rising
List of signatures on an appeal to the C. in C. to lift the blockade
List of prices of food in Najaf
(See also under 2. Personal Papers)
1918 Jun 4
Extract from telegram from Political Baghdad concerning the presentation of a sword of honour to Balfour by the `ulama and notables of Najaf in recognition of the policy pursued in regard to Najaf
1919 Feb 22
Memorandum no. S.24 from A.T. Wilson, Civil Commissioner Baghdad on “Self-determination in Mesopotamia”, possibly by G.L. Bell
1919 Nov 15
Despatch no. P8253/19 from A.T. Wilson, Acting Civil Commissioner in Mesopotamia, incorporating a note by G.L. Bell on “Syria in 1919”
1920 May 22
Report by G.L. Bell on a journey from Aleppo to Baghdad undertaken by a number of citizens of Baghdad
1920 Jun 13-14
Note by G.L. Bell on a conversation with Sulaiman Faidhi on a British Mandate for Iraq, with covering letter from the Acting Civil Commissioner in Mesopotamia
1920 Oct 1
Office of the Civil Commissioner, Baghdad, confidential document no. 10/223 consisting of copies of correspondence, telegrams, reports and newspaper articles on the future of Mesopotamia
1920 Nov 12
Report by E.B. Howell, Political Secretary to the High Commissioner for Mesopotamia on disturbances in Mesopotamia, 1 Sep-18 Oct 1920
Memorandum by Balfour on a meeting with Haddad Pasha to discuss Faisal's ambitions in Iraq, with draft letter from Balfour to Haddad re his inability to take up any future post in Iraq
1922 Oct 26
Intelligence Section note on "A Mandates. Palestine, Syria and the Lebanon. What they are"
1922 Nov 23
Intelligence section note on "The British Mandate for Mesopotamia and the present position with regard to it"
Extracts from memorandum on Anglo-Iraq relations, issued by the Information Department, Royal Institute of International Affairs (ts.)
Extracts from memorandum on the termination of the mandatory regime in Iraq, issued by the Information Department, Royal Institute of International Affairs
(For further material on Iraq, see sections 2(a), 2(b), 3 and 5)
(d) Mongalla
1930 Apr 3/4
Letter from Balfour to Sir John Maffey, Governor-General, describing in detail the visit of H.R.H. Prince of Wales to Mongalla Province, SAD.30 Mar-4 Apr
(See also under 2. Personal Papers)
2. Personal Papers
(a) Papers of Balfour
1906 Nov 15-1908 Jan 21
Personal letters from Balfour to his mother Lady Frances Balfour covering his journey to the Sudan and early service at Port Sudan. Most are typed in diary form and cover the following topics: first meeting with M.R. Kennedy in Cairo (303/6/1-2); lunch with Cromer (303/6/4); arrival in Port Sudan (303/6/6); first Protestant service in Port Sudan (303/6/7); description of Port Sudan (303/6/8-9); supervising erection of five electric cranes (303/6/10,33); arrival of Australian miners to mine gold n.w. of Port Sudan (303/6/11); preparations for the Christmas Day regatta (303/6/12-14); description of Hadendowa (303/6/15); lack of work for the harbour at Port Sudan (303/6/17-18); appointment of Balfour as Inspecting Engineer for a new bridge to be built across the harbour by the Cleveland Bridge and Engineering Co. (303/6/18); Christmas celebrations (303/6/20-21); installation of an automatic filter for the water supply (303/6/34); description of mess food (303/6/35); visit to Khartoum, including a meeting with Slatin, Inspector-General (303/6/42-44); new living quarters in school house in Port Sudan (303/6/44); assessment of Erkowit as a summer camp (303/6/47); complaints about Italian water soon to be replaced by water produced by Sudan Mercantile Co. condensers (303/6/54); resignation of Lord Cromer (303/6/54); gymkhana (303/6/55); Maulid al-Nabi celebrations (303/6/56); zar ceremony (303/6/57); visit of Wingate, the Governor-General, with Slatin and Bernard to the site of the new bridge (303/6/60-61); attempts to learn Arabic (303/6/66); trek along Khor Arbaat (303/6/67-68); water supply for Port Sudan from the Red Sea Hills (303/6/69-70); managing the budget and paying workers (303/6/70-71); visit from Rev. Gwynne (303/6/72-73); construction problems on the bridge (303/6/73); arrival of the floods (303/6/74); shortage of money for public works in the Sudan and the dismissal of P.W.D. Staff (303/6/76); journey by train from Salome Junction to Erba, train crash at Erba station, shooting expedition up Jabal Erba (303/6/77-78); attendance at Hadendowa races - description of camel races and dances involving both men and women (303/4/79) 303/4/1-75 are typed copies in a numbered sequence. The following pages are lacking: 44, 53, 54, 66, 67, 73-77. 303/4/76-81 are original ms. letters
1907 Oct 11-23
Ts. copies of letters from Balfour to his mother, Lady Frances Balfour, describing a visit from Port Sudan to Eritrea travelling by boat from Port Sudan to Suakin and detailing his first impressions of Suakin (303/5/1); boat trip from Suakin to Massawa in the company of Hewins (Economic Board) and Hewison (Agriculture and Lands) (303/5/1-2); description of Massawa (303/5/2-3); rail journey from Massawa to Ghindi and by wagon from Ghindi to Asmara (303/5/3-4); meeting with Acting Governor General at Asmara (303/5/5); social activities (303/5/6-10); inspection of gold mines (303/5/11); description of agricultural land with assessment of potential for cattle rearing, forestry and cotton growing (303/5/14-15); return journey to Ghindi by wagon (303/5/21-23)
1914 Nov 11
Letter from Balfour at Um Bahrein, Berber Province to his sister Mrs. Dugdale, sailing up the River Nile from Abu Hamed to Damer. Describes a meeting of the shaikhs, `umdahs and holy men of Berber District at Damer where they were addressed by the Governor on the implications of the war against Turkey
SAD.303/8/1-5; 303/8/10-14
1915 May 15-Dec 12
Personal letters from Balfour to his sister and mother concerning Faqi `Ali's insurrection against government troops at Kadugli, his subsequent escape from the XI Sudanese escort, the resulting search in the Nuba Mountains and his eventual surrender
1916 Jan 8
Personal letter from Sir Reginald Wingate toLady Frances Balfour on Balfour's role in the recapture of Faqi `Ali and his subsequent "Nile" decoration
1918 Jan 28, May 3
Letters from Balfour at Kufa and Najaf to his mother re his resignation over the problem of exacting punishment on Najaf without using force on a holy city and re the successful conclusion of the blockade of Najaf
(See also under 1. Official Papers)
1921 Jan 20-1922 Jul 27
Personal letters from A.T. Wilson, Political Resident in the Persian Gulf, to Balfour criticising the work of P.Z. Cox in Iraq (303/1/95); re his attendance at the Middle East Conference in London, assessing Winston Churchill's handling of Iraqi affairs and his plans for a Cairo-Baghdad air service and railway (303/1/96-98); re negotiations at Shiraz and Kuwait and affairs in Iraq with attached copy letter from an officer in Basrah on the unpopularity of the current regime (303/1/99-103); re his forthcoming marriage, Faisal's dismissal of his cabinet and his general unpopularity (303/1/107-111)
1930 Mar 30-Apr 6
Letter from Balfour on board the S.G.S. Tamai at Juba to his wife concerning the visit of the Prince of Wales to Mongalla Province and the missionary conference at Yei
(see also under 1. Official Papers)
1946 Oct 7
Letter from Balfour to H.C. Jackson re the Faqi `Ali rising in 1915
(b) Papers of Gertrude Bell
SAD.303/4/1-87; 303/4/88-188; 303/4/189-265
Ts. copies of personal letters from Gertrude Lothian Bell to Sir Valentine Chirol [Domnul], Originally numbered 1-84 in random order and annotated by Elizabeth Burgoyne, Gertrude Bell's biographer. Now arranged in date order, a note of the original order and former reference numbers is attached inside the file. Contents include:
En route from Teheran to London re her engagement to Henry Cadogan
From La Grave re her successful climb of the Meije
From Jerusalem re the Boer war and re her stay with Dr. Fritz Rosen, German Consul at Jerusalem, and his wife
From Jerusalem re her journey to Petra
From Switzerland re a climbing holiday
From London re her recent travels in Italy
From Redcar re Christmas celebrations and her recent stay in London
From London where she was nursing her father
From London re Queen Victoria's funeral
From Redcar re Chirol's travels in Japan and her Arabic studies
From London re discussions with Louis Mallet on Japan and China; family news
From Taormina re a stay in Sicily with her father and brother Hugo
From Peking re her visit to Singapore and China as part of a world tour with Hugo
From Aleppo re her impressions of Syrian politics
From Northallerton re prospects for a general election
En route to Gibraltar re the new British cabinet
On board the SS Ophir, returning from a stay with the Rosens at Tangiers, re affairs in Morocco
From London re the new Liberal government; family news
From Aidin and Konia re her travels and collaboration with Sir William Ramsay on churches in Asia Minor and re Lord Cromer's resignation
From Maden Sheher and Dailé, continuation of work in Asia Minor
From Northallerton re the threatened takeover of The Times by Pearson
From Northallerton re progress on her book with Ramsay and relations between the Young Turks and Bulgaria
From London re her recent stay in Italy and political developments in Britain
From Northallerton; family news
From Damascus re recent elections in Syria and the unpopularity of the British ambassador to Turkey
From Baghdad re her travels in the Syrian Desert; meetings with Sir William Willcocks
From Jezira ibn Omar and Diarbekr; continuation of travels in the Syrian Desert and into Persia
From Northallerton re affairs in Persia, the appointment of Kitchener as High Commissioner for Egypt, the coronation of George V, political affairs in Britain
From Thirsk re her work with the Anti-Suffragist movement, affairs in European Turkey
From Northallerton re Christmas celebrations, family news, events in Turkey
From Londonre events in Turkey, the suffrage debate, family news, preparations for her forthcoming trip to Syria
From Damascus re the unpopularity of the French in the Lebanon, prospects for elections in Damascus, the movement towards Arab unity among the Arabs of the desert
From Qasr al-Azraq, Amman and Baghdad re her travels in the Syrian Desert
From Boulogne re affairs in Mesopotamia, her work tracing missing and wounded soldiers, the progress of the war in Europe
From London, continuation of her work in France
From Qurnah re an intelligence gathering trip to Nasiriyah
From Basra re the departure of G.F. Gorringe and the incompetence of Sir Percy Lake
From Baghdad re her work in the Political Office, agricultural progress in Mesopotamia, the Najaf rising, Sir Percy Cox's transfer to Teheran, hardships in Persia, the end of the war
From Baghdad re the political climate there after the war, her growing contact with Muslim women, chaos in Syria and the problems of providing civil government in Mesopotamia
From Baghdad re the emergence of nationalism in Syria and the Iraqi provinces, difficulties in establishing Arab government in Baghdad
From Baghdad re the unpopularity of the provisional government in Iraq and the need for a peace treaty with Turkey
From Baghdad re the choice of Faisal as King of Iraq, the failure of British Arab policy, the insecurity of Iraq's borders
From Baghdad re increased prosperity and progress in Iraq and criticisms of the actions of King Husain
1920 May 8- 1921 Jul 17
Personal letters from Gertrude Bell in Baghdad toLady Frances Balfour re Balfour's engagement and re the success of his work in Baghdad (303/1/36-37); and to Balfour re the setting up of Arab ministries in Baghdad, prospects for elections to the National Assembly, hostility to Sayyid Talib (303/1/38); in praise of Sir Percy Cox, re Balfour's transfer to Basrah, prospects for the appointment of Faisal as amir or king and the failure of British policy towards Turkey (303/1/39-40); negotiations for the form of government for the new Iraq (303/1/41); the resignation of Philby over the deportation of Sayyid Talib and local attitudes to Faisal (303/1/42)
SAD.3. Articles, Speeches
Article by Balfour on ‘Faqi `Ali' (unpublished)
Article by Balfour entitled “The Anglo-Egyptian Sudan” with related correspondence from Sir Harold MacMichael, Charles Owen and Lord Rugby
Review by Balfour of K.D.D. Henderson's The making of the modern Sudan, for The Quarterly Review, with related correspondence
1958 Jan
Article by Balfour entitled “Mesopotomia 1917-1918” concerning his transfer to Mesopotamia from the Sudan and his experiences during the rising in Najaf
1921 Jan 14
Draft speech by A.T. Wilson on the failure of British policy in Mesopotamia
4. Newspaper cuttings
1958 Feb 28-Mar 6
Cuttings from The Times on a dispute between Egypt and the Sudan over the frontier at Halaib on the Red Sea coast, with related correspondence from N.R. Udal
5. Printed Material
1921 Apr 15
Lecture by Lieut.Col. Sir Arnold Wilson entitled “Mesopotamia”
(Private publication)